Cements with high alumina units, which corresponds to the higher content of calcium aluminate, grasp and harden quite quickly. However, once a certain strength is achieved during the first days it hardly increases during further solidification. Such cements are less resistant to the effects of saline water. For small values of the alumina modulus, meaning when large quantities of iron oxide in the clinker, cement sets and hardens more slowly, but yield a higher final strength. Iron oxide facilitates the clinker burning, it reduces the temperature of sintering.
The limited content cements, magnesium oxide (4-4.5%), as being in a free state, it may, due to slow hydration and later, cause the appearance of stress cracks in the products. The main characteristic is its clinker mineral composition, the content of C3S, C2S, NWA and OAF. Given that each mineral of Portland cement clinker has its own characteristics (9 markers to a greater or lesser extent influenced by the general properties of the cement, builders can not only pay attention to the strength characteristics. According to Telling experts, the company specialized in architectural solutions and wide use of hydraulic lime, lime mortar and concrete technologies, alite is considered to have the best hardening strength capabilities.
The greatest intensity of strength development is the feature of C3A, but just like C4AF, it provides low strength. The last place, both in absolute terms of strength and durability of the growth rate, goes to belite. It is noted that in long periods of time curing bleaches are capable of gaining high strength/behaving similarly to mixture of these components. The greatest strength of the two-component mixture is demonstrated by alite and NWA, the smallest – in alite mixed with bleaches and alite in a mixture with C4AF. An increase in the NWA to 15% increases the strength of the first period of hardening, but further provides a reduction of strength. The contents of NWA up to 10% gives the best strength constant gain when combined with OS, although separately NWA, as noted above, provides a very low strength. In this case, the positive role is played by the presence of gypsum in the cement that is added when grinding clinker. With it in composition a complex hardening salt is formed – crystalline calcium hydro-sulfoaluminate (also known ettringite).
In assessing the quality and choice of the cement it also vital to take into account the deformability, shrinkage, heat, corrosion resistance, hardiness and resistance to external conditions of the building structures and other properties. The presence of artificial mineral clinker in various quantities and combinations brings about changes in the figures of the cement.
Deformability, impact resistance and ductility, is significantly higher in aluminoferrite cement, and virtually devoid of tricalcium aluminate. Aluminoferrite cement provides almost 2 times the tensile limit than aluminate cement. The content of NWA greatly reduces the deformability of cement capacity, it increases the likelihood of cracking. NWA is the most fragile mineral, while C4AF is way less fragile.
The practical use of ultrasound takes its roots in 1880 after the discovery of piezoelectric effect by brothers Jacques and Pierre Curie. The effect was first discovered in rock crystal (variety of quartz).
The essence of the piezoelectric effect is the following: if the deformed quartz plate, then it faces appear opposite in sign to the electric charges, this phenomenon is called the direct piezoelectric effect. The mechanism of the direct piezoelectric effect is explained by the occurrence and the change in the dipole moment of the unit cell of the crystal lattice as a result of the displacement of the charges under the influence of mechanical stress. Thus, the faces of piezoelectric material generate electric charges.
But it turned out that there is an inverse piezoelectric effect. If applied to the plate alternating voltage, the crystal begins to shrink and expand with the frequency of the applied voltage. The mechanism of the reverse piezoelectric effect is as follows: under the action of an electric field on the charges in the elementary cell, a movement and as a result the average distance between them, that is, the deformation of the crystal occurs.
Made of a piezoelectric material part of simple geometric shapes (rod, plate, disc, cylinder, and so on) and coated with its specific surface electrodes called piezo. Piezo elements are part of a piezoelectric transducer. The inverter converts the energy of electrical oscillations in the energy of mechanical vibrations and puts it in a manufacturing environment.
Natural quartz roads is expensive, therefore created artificial piezomaterials barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate. These piezoelectric materials 100 times greater than that of quartz. Similar materials have been found among the magnetic materials and are called magnetostrictive materials. It was found that placing the magnetostrictive rod in a direction along a magnetic field alters the geometric dimensions of the rod.
On the basis of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials developed ultrasonic transducers transducers – devices that provide electrical energy conversion into mechanical vibrations of elastic vibrations.
But where one can use ultrasonic vibrations? One of the main applications of ultrasound is associated with the ability to transport enormous energies, aimed at the development and improvement of industrial technology. Promising direction of intensification of technological processes is the use of mechanical energy ultrasonic oscillations of high intensity.
The use of ultrasonic vibration simplifies or pushes to the next level the processes that are not implemented or implemented with difficulties, traditional methods – provide machining (drilling, chamfering, performance slots) hard and brittle materials such as ceramics, semiconductor materials, glass, gems, ferrite, super-hard alloy and steel.
Ultrasonic vibrations can intensify many of the processes occurring at the interface of materials (plastics welding, gluing, impregnation of different materials), accelerating processes and improving the quality of the products. Undeniable and unique advantages of ultrasonic technology had to provide their broadest use in solving complex problems of modern industries, focused on the production of competitive products. For example, ultrasound helped to enhance the manufacturing process at large machinery facilities due to an improved cleaning and drying process. This, in its turn, gave birth to the entirely new technology – the companies like Hilsonic emerged and gave birth to numerous types of ultrasonic cleaner equipment.
High quality lighting is the key to high productivity of the manufacturing process, comfortable working conditions for employees, safe movement in tough areas, and this is just the beginning of the list. Nowadays, the organization of lighting gets increasingly, yet fairly saturated with LED lighting. LEDs differ in shape, form and purpose: from conventional light sources to special performance fixtures, allowing such devices to work in conditions of high humidity, dustiness, high or low temperatures. The business aspect of the next-gen lighting is definitely there: considering the example of Metcraft Lighting manufacturers, a noteworthy UK-based manufacturer integrating led street lights systems, has already managed to press for 567% annual energy consumption economy.
LED lighting fixtures are often packed with housings of special design that provide decent protection against ingress of moisture and dust, mechanical damage, as well as effective removal of heat generated during operation of industrial diode lamp.
As for industrial facilities and workplaces lighting, obviously, it should be bright enough and uniform at the same time. However, having too bright and dark areas should be avoided, since switching the focus from dark to the light areas and vice versa leads to rapid fatigue of view. In order to make the most uniform illumination, you can use the energy-saving industrial lighting pendant or wall with opal diffuser. Lighting should be comfortable to the human eye spectral composition that prevents overvoltage view.
In the industrial facilities LED lighting feature the body that protects the power supply from high humidity and dustiness. This can be achieved by sealing quality. Luminaire body can be vandal-proof, which prevents accidental damage. The same goes as for resistance to vibration, which is often presented in industrial areas. By the way, diode industrial lighting can operate in an impressive temperatures range from -40 to +40°C. (more…)
No win no fee legislation, mainly designed for grass roots and subjected to core changes in the year of 1995, is meant to be a transparent and accessible legal tool anyone can make use of. The type of agreement, applicable in submitting both serious brain injury claims and minor injury claims, implies paying a success fee to the solicitor if the case is won: the sum is deducted from the compensation awarded by the court. Definitely, the latest major legislation changes have adjusted the way it works – however, judging by the amount of companies registered as providing ‘no win no fee’ services at Solicitors Guru, a large number of licensed firms still offers such services.
Doubtlessly, the legal instrument granted for the wider audience is meant to be actively used, but according to statistics, the option is taken advantage of extremely rarely. In accordance with the report, carried out by the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers, an overwhelming majority of workers, suffered an injury or contracted a disease on-the-job, never pulls the legal trigger. The president of the association, Matthew Stockwell, admits the opportunity has been used by as little as 15%, while the greater part of injured never tried to collect their legal compensation.
The researchers believe that there are several strong reasons for ignoring the opportunity; both head injury claims or minor injury claims opportunities are typically abandoned due to inability to prove the 3rd party negligence, which naturally includes the lack of evidence. Unfortunately, not many aware of the fact that the list of employer’s responsibilities is represented by an extremely huge amount of items, so the incompetence in legal questions prevents the majority of workers from receiving legal compensations. Another large group of potential legal customers considers the opportunity to be a ‘time wasting affair’ and believes that the chances to get at least a tiny compensation amount are miserable.
Flange is an integral part of pipe fittings typically used as a connecting component either to fixed or rotating parts. An average flange represents a paired object of ring or disc-shaped form. The flanges uk are mounted through diametrically arranged holes using a flange connection screw: bolts or studs, tightening the two flanges. Flanges may vary in size, type of connection between them, front form and in seals options between two mating surfaces of the flange. The pressure the pipelines flanges handle starts from 10-13 mbar and reaches the impressive 220 bar in the most advanced facilities.
There are several forms of flanges production: manufacturers produce steel flat flanges, neck flanges, loose flanges on the ring, secured by welding, and, of course, bespoke flanges. Flanges form the first group serve as connecting elements between the flange itself and the other flange element of the system. The flanges are typically attached to the pipes via threaded or welded joints. Such flanges are designed to withstand the temperature conditions of -75 – 450 degrees. However, it should be taken into account that depending on the diameter of the pipe, the assumed values of pressure and regional conditions flanges may have up to ten subtypes of spacer compounds. Flat flanges are able to withstand even greater temperature ranges, in this case the flanges are connected by welding, without using spacers between the flat flanges of additional materials. Neck flanges are mounted back to back; the flanges of this type are oftentimes used to mounting various devices by connecting flanges with various fittings and pipe accessories.
The flanges represent the parts of connective tubing, shafts and containers. Flanges are primarily designed for connecting different products with the main pipeline valves. Furthermore, they are used for bonding together the individual pipe sections or the connection to the equipment. Flange reinforcement provides strength, integrity and simplifies the process of assembling and disassembling complex constructions.
Tanks, reservoirs and containers designed for different purposes and configurations are fairly considered to be integral parts of virtually any engineering system.
Due to the unprecedented demand, manufacturers offer a wide selection of tanks types: hydro accumulators used in water supply systems, storage tanks for drinking and industrial water, condensate tanks, reactants tanks, pressure and non-pressure process vessels, and dozens of other types of various volume, shape and configuration, standard or custom-designed. The companies specializing in manufacturing equipment for huge production facilities typically provide bund, or the so-called ‘bund walls’ construction aimed at preventing the chemical spills.
An individual approach in the design and manufacture saves considerable amounts of money in comparison with standard solutions, which is achieved through accurate estimating of the optimal volume and weight of the tank.
The manufacture of tanks and containers in accordance with individually specified geometrical characteristics reduces the cost of construction and installation works as well as the cost of existing facilities reconstruction or upgrading. Stainless steel material used in tanks manufacturing increases the lifespan of the product up to 30-40 years, plus the construction is hardly suitable for corrosive environment development, due to the limited iron oxide (rust) formation capabilities during the use.
In addition, equipment providers produce voc removal and odour control systems, to decrease the concentration of dangerous chemical compounds and biological and carbon odour control accordingly. Taking into account the rigid norms and standards the large production facilities have to comply with, installing such equipment is obligatory in nine cases out of ten.
A borehole drilling rig is designed to lift and lower the drill string and casing in the well, retain the pressure exerted on the drill string during drilling, accommodate the drill block system and its parts, the pipe and the equipment needed for drilling.
When another drilling site for oil and gas is launched the professionals take advantage of using metal tower and mast rigs, and frankly speaking, mast construction are used more frequently in comparison with the tower ones. Such choice is explained by a less complicated and faster process of installation. Tower rigs are overwhelmingly erected for deep exploration, while mast rigs are installed for production purposes.
Derricks may differ in payloads and height. According to practice, drilling to a depth of 1200-1300m demands installing the 28m height rig, the wells of 1330-3500m need 41-42m rig to be mounted, while the projects exceeding 3,500m demand 53+ meters derricks.
Today the industry professionals do mostly resort to A-frame mast derricks, comprised of two columns connected at the top of the crown with connection blockers and attached at the bottom to support the hinges. A range of researches in geophysics as well as practical data confirms that the construction mentioned above is considered to be the most efficient one for residential systems.