The practical use of ultrasound takes its roots in 1880 after the discovery of piezoelectric effect by brothers Jacques and Pierre Curie. The effect was first discovered in rock crystal (variety of quartz).
The essence of the piezoelectric effect is the following: if the deformed quartz plate, then it faces appear opposite in sign to the electric charges, this phenomenon is called the direct piezoelectric effect. The mechanism of the direct piezoelectric effect is explained by the occurrence and the change in the dipole moment of the unit cell of the crystal lattice as a result of the displacement of the charges under the influence of mechanical stress. Thus, the faces of piezoelectric material generate electric charges.
But it turned out that there is an inverse piezoelectric effect. If applied to the plate alternating voltage, the crystal begins to shrink and expand with the frequency of the applied voltage. The mechanism of the reverse piezoelectric effect is as follows: under the action of an electric field on the charges in the elementary cell, a movement and as a result the average distance between them, that is, the deformation of the crystal occurs.
Made of a piezoelectric material part of simple geometric shapes (rod, plate, disc, cylinder, and so on) and coated with its specific surface electrodes called piezo. Piezo elements are part of a piezoelectric transducer. The inverter converts the energy of electrical oscillations in the energy of mechanical vibrations and puts it in a manufacturing environment.
Natural quartz roads is expensive, therefore created artificial piezomaterials barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate. These piezoelectric materials 100 times greater than that of quartz. Similar materials have been found among the magnetic materials and are called magnetostrictive materials. It was found that placing the magnetostrictive rod in a direction along a magnetic field alters the geometric dimensions of the rod.
On the basis of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials developed ultrasonic transducers transducers – devices that provide electrical energy conversion into mechanical vibrations of elastic vibrations.
But where one can use ultrasonic vibrations? One of the main applications of ultrasound is associated with the ability to transport enormous energies, aimed at the development and improvement of industrial technology. Promising direction of intensification of technological processes is the use of mechanical energy ultrasonic oscillations of high intensity.
The use of ultrasonic vibration simplifies or pushes to the next level the processes that are not implemented or implemented with difficulties, traditional methods – provide machining (drilling, chamfering, performance slots) hard and brittle materials such as ceramics, semiconductor materials, glass, gems, ferrite, super-hard alloy and steel.
Ultrasonic vibrations can intensify many of the processes occurring at the interface of materials (plastics welding, gluing, impregnation of different materials), accelerating processes and improving the quality of the products. Undeniable and unique advantages of ultrasonic technology had to provide their broadest use in solving complex problems of modern industries, focused on the production of competitive products. For example, ultrasound helped to enhance the manufacturing process at large machinery facilities due to an improved cleaning and drying process. This, in its turn, gave birth to the entirely new technology – the companies like Hilsonic emerged and gave birth to numerous types of ultrasonic cleaner equipment.
High quality lighting is the key to high productivity of the manufacturing process, comfortable working conditions for employees, safe movement in tough areas, and this is just the beginning of the list. Nowadays, the organization of lighting gets increasingly, yet fairly saturated with LED lighting. LEDs differ in shape, form and purpose: from conventional light sources to special performance fixtures, allowing such devices to work in conditions of high humidity, dustiness, high or low temperatures. The business aspect of the next-gen lighting is definitely there: considering the example of Metcraft Lighting manufacturers, a noteworthy UK-based manufacturer integrating led street lights systems, has already managed to press for 567% annual energy consumption economy.
LED lighting fixtures are often packed with housings of special design that provide decent protection against ingress of moisture and dust, mechanical damage, as well as effective removal of heat generated during operation of industrial diode lamp.
As for industrial facilities and workplaces lighting, obviously, it should be bright enough and uniform at the same time. However, having too bright and dark areas should be avoided, since switching the focus from dark to the light areas and vice versa leads to rapid fatigue of view. In order to make the most uniform illumination, you can use the energy-saving industrial lighting pendant or wall with opal diffuser. Lighting should be comfortable to the human eye spectral composition that prevents overvoltage view.
In the industrial facilities LED lighting feature the body that protects the power supply from high humidity and dustiness. This can be achieved by sealing quality. Luminaire body can be vandal-proof, which prevents accidental damage. The same goes as for resistance to vibration, which is often presented in industrial areas. By the way, diode industrial lighting can operate in an impressive temperatures range from -40 to +40°C. (more…)
In February 2000, in the monthly bulletin of news on policy abuses research carried out by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, with reference to the Advocacy Institute, it was concluded that ‘herbal cigarettes are unsafe’, but popular among minors. The manuscript underlined that herbal cigarettes, marketed as a healthier alternative to tobacco and smoking cessation, are extremely attractive for young people. In the previous two years, the sales of such brands as Ecstasy rocketed to 350%. Ecstasy, Herbal Gold and the far-famed Magic ciggys come with ginseng, jasmine and heaps of other herbs in the composition, and therefore not subject to restrictions on sales to minors. Because teens tend to copy adults’ behavior, herbal cigarettes are a means to teach them to smoke, and the brand sophisticatedly promotes Ecstasy among teenagers.
On April 27 of same year, The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) of the United States issued a statement, indicating the nature of deceptive advertising of alternative cigarettes and required companies to designate herbal cigarettes harm to health.
In this statement, an official response to the actions of two businesses: Santa Fe and Alternative Cigarettes, in particular, states that manufacturers that produce alternative cigarettes, agreed to explicitly indicate ‘smoking herbal cigarettes is not safe for your health; the cigarettes are the source of tar and carbon monoxide’ signature on the packaging and advertising of herbal cigarettes. It should be noted that on some web pages touting herbal cigarettes, now the above-mentioned warning is also indicated.
Such instructions on the package may be excluded only if the data on research results showing that herbal smoking products do not cause any health risk is provided.
As stated by Jodie Bernstein, Office of Consumer Protection (FTC) director, this cigarettes type is promoted under the aura of ‘natural products’, but in fact they are neither healthier nor safer. Actually, there is no such thing as ‘safe smoke’; in the article on herbal cigarettes posted on (Natural Health Magazine) herbal-health.uk website, a digital herbal medicine treasury, boasting numerous articles on herbal medicine, it is argued that cigarette smoke, just like smoke of tobacco cigarettes , is a source of toxins, carcinogens, resins and carbon monoxide.
In addition, after FTC forced manufacturers to place warnings on cigarette packs and baned the packages indicating that ‘herbal cigarettes that do not cause a health risk that is associated with tobacco smoking’ as well as any other statements on health effects, until they are not supported by the research results, the initiative was supported by state authorities.
Following the FTC statement in May 2000, there have been reports that state legislatures began to unanimously put herbal cigarettes sales to minors under a ban.
In New York the Act on Prevention of adolescent tobacco use, in particular, in the 2002 version, says that salespeople do not have the right to sell tobacco or herbal cigarettes to persons under 18 years of age, otherwise they risk to be fined $2,500 and lose the certificate for trade in tobacco and herbal products, loss of license.
No win no fee legislation, mainly designed for grass roots and subjected to core changes in the year of 1995, is meant to be a transparent and accessible legal tool anyone can make use of. The type of agreement, applicable in submitting both serious brain injury claims and minor injury claims, implies paying a success fee to the solicitor if the case is won: the sum is deducted from the compensation awarded by the court.
Doubtlessly, the legal instrument granted for the wider audience is meant to be actively used, but according to statistics, the option is taken advantage of extremely rarely. In accordance with the report, carried out by the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers, an overwhelming majority of workers, suffered an injury or contracted a disease on-the-job, never pulls the legal trigger. The president of the association, Matthew Stockwell, admits the opportunity has been used by as little as 15%, while the greater part of injured never tried to collect their legal compensation.
The researchers believe that there are several strong reasons for ignoring the opportunity; both head injury claims or minor injury claims opportunities are typically abandoned due to inability to prove the 3rd party negligence, which naturally includes the lack of evidence. Unfortunately, not many aware of the fact that the list of employer’s responsibilities is represented by an extremely huge amount of items, so the incompetence in legal questions prevents the majority of workers from receiving legal compensations. Another large group of potential legal customers considers the opportunity to be a ‘time wasting affair’ and believes that the chances to get at least a tiny compensation amount are miserable.
Flange is an integral part of pipe fittings typically used as a connecting component either to fixed or rotating parts. An average flange represents a paired object of ring or disc-shaped form. The flanges uk are mounted through diametrically arranged holes using a flange connection screw: bolts or studs, tightening the two flanges. Flanges may vary in size, type of connection between them, front form and in seals options between two mating surfaces of the flange. The pressure the pipelines flanges handle starts from 10-13 mbar and reaches the impressive 220 bar in the most advanced facilities.
There are several forms of flanges production: manufacturers produce steel flat flanges, neck flanges, loose flanges on the ring, secured by welding, and, of course, bespoke flanges. Flanges form the first group serve as connecting elements between the flange itself and the other flange element of the system. The flanges are typically attached to the pipes via threaded or welded joints. Such flanges are designed to withstand the temperature conditions of -75 – 450 degrees. However, it should be taken into account that depending on the diameter of the pipe, the assumed values of pressure and regional conditions flanges may have up to ten subtypes of spacer compounds. Flat flanges are able to withstand even greater temperature ranges, in this case the flanges are connected by welding, without using spacers between the flat flanges of additional materials. Neck flanges are mounted back to back; the flanges of this type are oftentimes used to mounting various devices by connecting flanges with various fittings and pipe accessories.
The flanges represent the parts of connective tubing, shafts and containers. Flanges are primarily designed for connecting different products with the main pipeline valves. Furthermore, they are used for bonding together the individual pipe sections or the connection to the equipment. Flange reinforcement provides strength, integrity and simplifies the process of assembling and disassembling complex constructions.
The quality of any essay depends on three interrelated components:
Investing is a serious and responsible expression seeking to attain better results. It takes from you a lot of creative thoughts, rational actions in planning an investment strategy in order to achieve the desired objectives. All the basic elements such as time span, kind of business or capital size are interrelated, though depending on the time you can better decide the alternatives that might prove to be more attractive and favorable. (more…)
Tanks, reservoirs and containers designed for different purposes and configurations are fairly considered to be integral parts of virtually any engineering system.
Due to the unprecedented demand, manufacturers offer a wide selection of tanks types: hydro accumulators used in water supply systems, storage tanks for drinking and industrial water, condensate tanks, reactants tanks, pressure and non-pressure process vessels, and dozens of other types of various volume, shape and configuration, standard or custom-designed. The companies specializing in manufacturing equipment for huge production facilities typically provide bund, or the so-called ‘bund walls’ construction aimed at preventing the chemical spills.
An individual approach in the design and manufacture saves considerable amounts of money in comparison with standard solutions, which is achieved through accurate estimating of the optimal volume and weight of the tank.
The manufacture of tanks and containers in accordance with individually specified geometrical characteristics reduces the cost of construction and installation works as well as the cost of existing facilities reconstruction or upgrading. Stainless steel material used in tanks manufacturing increases the lifespan of the product up to 30-40 years, plus the construction is hardly suitable for corrosive environment development, due to the limited iron oxide (rust) formation capabilities during the use.
In addition, equipment providers produce voc removal and odour control systems, to decrease the concentration of dangerous chemical compounds and biological and carbon odour control accordingly. Taking into account the rigid norms and standards the large production facilities have to comply with, installing such equipment is obligatory in nine cases out of ten.
A borehole drilling rig is designed to lift and lower the drill string and casing in the well, retain the pressure exerted on the drill string during drilling, accommodate the drill block system and its parts, the pipe and the equipment needed for drilling.
When another drilling site for oil and gas is launched the professionals take advantage of using metal tower and mast rigs, and frankly speaking, mast construction are used more frequently in comparison with the tower ones. Such choice is explained by a less complicated and faster process of installation. Tower rigs are overwhelmingly erected for deep exploration, while mast rigs are installed for production purposes.
Derricks may differ in payloads and height. According to practice, drilling to a depth of 1200-1300m demands installing the 28m height rig, the wells of 1330-3500m need 41-42m rig to be mounted, while the projects exceeding 3,500m demand 53+ meters derricks.
Today the industry professionals do mostly resort to A-frame mast derricks, comprised of two columns connected at the top of the crown with connection blockers and attached at the bottom to support the hinges. A range of researches in geophysics as well as practical data confirms that the construction mentioned above is considered to be the most efficient one for residential systems.